Argumentative Essay Models and Phrases

>> Hello, everybody. This is going to be a video

of a document that I created. And I used it from three different sources. The reason I made this video is

because I — or this document — is because I didn’t feel as though

the book did a good enough job to help explain the different parts. So there are three parts. Even though I put different ways

to organize an argumentative essay, I’ll go over this chart then down here

I gave you starting your opposition and refuting phrases. I give you words how to start the

opposing paragraph, how to refute it. I’ll go over that. And then the last part here, I gave you

the example paragraph of how to refute. And then I gave you weaknesses that

you could find in the opposing view. So let’s start with the beginning, and again,

while I’m scrolling up you should have a copy of this in front of you because

you can use this for your essays. Just follow it. It’s a good guide. I realize that we have, I have other

videos but I really like this one. I think it gets to the heart of

it, to the heart of the issue. So first of all, we know an argumentative

essay we want to have our side and then we want to bring in what the other side,

the opposing view brings in. And here are four different ways of how

you could create or organize your essay. First of all, model A, obviously start with

your thesis statement and then you can go over your pro, pro, pro, what you’re for. And then here bring in the

counter argument and refute it. Oh, come on. Excuse me. Sorry about that. And then you want the conclusion. Over here, model B — excuse me one second. So here’s model B. We have the thesis statement,

and then you can bring in the counter argument, and then refute it here in the

beginning, and then your pro, pro, pro, and then the conclusion paragraph. Now look, these are all structured as

five paragraph essays but I want you guys to get beyond that, especially

for your research paper. You have to go beyond that because

you have to have eight pages, or whatever the requirement

is at the time you see this. Model C, you can start with your thesis

statement, counter argument, and refute it, counter argument and refute, counter argument

and refute, and then your conclusion. So this way it’s kind of strange to me. I don’t know if I’ve ever done it before. And then here, your thesis statement, counter

argument, counter argument, counter argument, and then your pro argument

here, and then the conclusion. I can honestly tell you in model C

and model D, I’ve never used before, but if you want to go ahead

and try those, go ahead. However, I recommend you use model A

and model B. These are the most common. And honestly it’s the ones I’ve only used. So I wanted to give you the

four distinct ways but, again, model A and model B are probably

the best ways to go. So these are ways to set up your paragraphs. Also here, I wanted to let you know, too, that

back in model A counter argument and refutate, it doesn’t mean just one paragraph,

meaning you can have two or three, depending how many counter or

opposing you want to bring in, how many opposing paragraphs you

want to bring into your essay. So obviously if it’s a longer

essay, you’ll probably want to bring in more of the opposing views. Because, remember, if you bring in the

opposing views, it helps with your credibility, your ethos because you’re not afraid

to bring in the opposing views. That means that you’ve done research and

you’re going to bring those in because you know in the end that even though they disagree with

your viewpoint, you’re going to refute it, spin it back, and say how it’s good for your

side, or how your side is better, excuse me. I’ll talk more about that in a little bit. Okay. Let’s go to the next part. So here, starting opposition

and refuting phrases. I’ve had people email me and some students, and it’s understandable, “How

do I start this, teacher?” So the point is here you want to

introduce the opposing argument. You want to bring in the other side. Here are a few phrases that

you could use to start it. So if we’re going to start the opposing

view, you want your reader to know that you’re starting the opposing view. And this could be in the

[inaudible] the topic sentences. So you could say, “But blank is not completely

inaccurate,” “It is often argued that — .” It is true that — .” “Opposing views claim,” or, “Many

people disagree,” something like that. You want to acknowledge the parts

of the opposition that are valid. I think I’ve gone too far. Yeah. No. That’s good. So you want to, so you’re going

to bring in — excuse me, guys. You’re going to introduce one of these phrases. It’s a topic sentence. Your reader will know that this

is an opposing views paragraph. Then you’re going to acknowledge the

parts that are valid to their argument. So and you might think it’s

hurting your argument by bringing in the other side, but it’s not. Again, it’s giving you more credibility. So then here you want to

acknowledge the valid parts. And how are you going to do that? Start with the words “maybe”,

“admittedly”, “certainly”, “of course”, “one cannot deny that”, or, “at the same time”. This way you are giving them credit

for having some valid points. And here are some words you can use

to create or start that sentence. Then of course counter that argument. You want to refute it. You want to spin it back to your side. Here are some ways you could

do that, “nevertheless”, “however”, “on the other hand”, “but”. And then you want to introduce the conclusion. Now the conclusion is to the, not the conclusion

paragraph, it’s the conclusion to the paragraph that you’re working on, the opposing views. So here are some ways you

could start that, “thus”, “therefore”, “as a result”, “ultimately”. And sometimes you may want to

restate your thesis in other words because you’re coming back to your claim. Your claim is your thesis. This will make more sense. Let me go over this paragraph with you. So in this paragraph, you may want to

read it before you continue, pause. But I’m going to go through

this as though you have read it. So here if we look at, “Many

critics of going green claim that becoming environmentally

friendly is too expensive and will result in higher tuition and fees.” So this person who’s writing this is,

they want their college to go green. They want this to be cheaper. They want to save the environment. But the critics, many critics, the opposing

view are saying, “Well, if you go green, it’s going to cost the college more, therefore

tuition’s going to be higher for the students.” So here, “Many critics,” this is “Or

opposing claims”, or, “Many people believe,” that you’re introducing the

argument, the opposing argument. And right here was, I came back up

here, introducing the opposing argument. Here are some of the ways you can do it. They decided to use, excuse me, guys. “Many critics claim that,” so

this is their topic sentence. We know it’s the opposing views. Your readers will say, “Ah, here

comes the opposing view paragraph,” because it’s very clear in this topic sentence. Then they jump around a little here. So the first sentence, yes, you’re

saying and the opposing view is saying that tuition and fees will go up. But you’re going to counter that. You’re going to refute that. You could say, “How often,” — or, excuse me

— “However, often very small increase in fees, as little as a few dollars a semester, can be enough to help a school

institute significant change.” So what they’re saying is, “Yes, it may

go up, but the tuition is not that much and what are the results if it goes up?” So what they’re saying here is the students

initiated a dollar increase for their tuition and that dollar increase didn’t hurt the

students but it also helped them save or reduce carbon by twelve million pounds. So they’re saying, look, yes,

college tuition may go up. However, it’s not going up, and if it

does, the students are okay with it because they’ve already added

a dollar to their tuition. And what has that tuition done? It has helped reduce emissions of

carbon by twelve million pounds. Okay. Then the next part. So, again, let me rephrase. Topic sentence. This is the opposing view here. We are refuting it. This, you know, you’re saying this

is true but actually it can be true but it’s not as bad as you think it is. Then here you’re going to say, “Although

university faculty and administrators commitment to sustainability is critical for any program’s

success, few green initiatives will succeed without the enthusiastic

support of the student body.” So what they’re saying is

here, “Look, you have a point. Tuition may go up but and it needs administrator

commitment but the overall, or the student body, they’re going to have to have the support and

they do because this school has already said, ‘you know what, a student

initiated dollar increase. The students came up with that.'” So

what they’re saying here is, “Yeah, you’re worried about tuition

hikes but the students aren’t because in other schools they’re saying let’s

do it if it’s going to help the environment.” And then here, the conclusion, you can restate

your thesis here but they decided to say, “Ultimately, students have the power, so, yes.” Excuse me here. “So yes, you’re right. Higher tuition but the students have the

power and they have already said, ‘Yes, we’re okay to do it,’ they gave a dollar.” So then here, “If they think your school

is spending too much on green projects, then they can make a change

or choose to go elsewhere.” So the students can make

the change, which they have. They said, “Let’s increase it.” Or, if the students don’t like it or the tuition

is going up, they can go to a different school. So this was a good opposing

and refuting paragraph. Let’s go to the next part. I’m sorry that this video

is going over ten minutes. I really try to keep them there but it’s very

important so I’m going to keep going with this. So, weakness in the opposing argument. What made the argument here weak? Was it number one, was there a factual error

or was there contrary to fact statements? Number two, was there insufficient support? Number three, was there illogical reasoning? And you can read this over later. Number four, was it exaggerated

or overstating claims? Or five, biased statements? And then number six, was

the argument irrelevant? Was it even off topic? Did it even belong here? So we’ll go over that more later and in

more detail but right now these are some of the weaknesses that you can find when

you’re bringing in the opposing views. Now here I put number seven, in the example

paragraph above, what was its weakness? I think it was number four,

exaggerated or overstated the claim. Look here. They’re saying that higher tuition, it’s going

to result in higher if the college goes green. I think they’re over exaggerating. They’re trying to scare people

in saying, “You know what? If the cost goes up, the

students aren’t going to be happy. It’s going to hurt the school,” when

in actuality it was just the opposite. So I would go with number five,

identify the exaggerated statements or explain why they overstate the case. And I think that this person who wrote this, the

young man who wrote this, really said, “Yeah. You exaggerated this and here’s why. Students are for it. Students can go elsewhere if they don’t like it. And if the administrators

think they have a lot of power, not really so because the enthusiastic support

of the student body is what keeps it going.” Okay, everybody. This was the presentation. I hope this helps. Look this over. Again, outline models, I would choose A

or B. Here, how to start your opposition and how to start your refuting

phrases in the paragraph. Look at the example I gave you. I break it down really well. I talk about it. And then you want to look for the

weaknesses in the opposing arguments. So when you’re writing your own paper

you’re going to bring in the opposing view. Look for the weakness, state

while it’s weak — why it is weak. I hope this helps. Okay. Everybody, good luck. Thank you.

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